Guide for Authors:


Manuscript Preparation

Language and Spelling:

Agricultural Communications publishes papers in English and British English spelling should be used throughout the paper.

Latin words or phrases should be in italics, with the exception of very common expressions such as “i.e.,” “e.g.,” “et al.,” “in vitro,” “ex vitro” and “etc. The expression “etc.” for “and so forth” should be used only with series, such as 1, 2, 3, etc.



Manuscripts should be as concise as possible in order to reduce the number of published pages. As a general rule the maximum recommended length of a paper is 6000 words in length which is approximately 16 pages according to page setup rules.


Font Type and Size:

Papers should be written by using Times New Roman font. Except for the Title which is printed in 14 point, the rest of the manuscript, including tables should be 12 point.


Page Setup:


Page margins should be 2.54cm (1 inch) for all sides (top, bottom, left, and right).

Page size:

Page size should be set on A4 with portrait orientation.


Paper should be arranged in one column except for Tables.

Line numbering:

Manuscript pages should be line numbered and line numbering should restart on each page.


Paragraph Setup:


Paragraph spacing should be zero while line spacing should be 1.5 lines upon submission.


Paragraph indention should be for 1.27cm in first lines of all paragraphs except those that immediately follow rank three and rank four subheadings and 1.27cm hanging for second line of the Keywords and Literature Cited references.


Headings Ranks and Format

Papers can contain one to four headings, which all have to be aligned at the left hand margin, as follows:

RANK ONE Use boldface and all capital letters. Use a one line as space before this rank but subsequent paragraph(s) continue without a space. Subsequent paragraphs within this section are indented without spaces between paragraphs. Headings such as INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION are Rank one headings.

Rank Two This heading subdivides rank one headings, thus there must be at least two or more Rank Two subheads. Titles are boldface with the first letter of important words in capital letters and the others in lower case. Rank Two headings are separated by a space above the heading as in RANK ONE headings. No period after Rank Two headings. The paragraph starts on the first line after the Rank Two heading and is indented.

1. Rank Three. This heading may be used to divide Rank Two headings. Initiate this heading with Arabic numerals (1,2,3 etc.). With numbers and title in boldface with the beginning of each word in capital letters. The subheading ends with a period. The paragraph continues on the same line. Do not separate this heading with blank lines.

Rank Four. This heading subdividing Rank Three headings will be used rarely. Align left, end with a period, and continue on same line. The font is italic, non-boldface, with the beginning of each word in capital letters. Do not separate with blank lines.



MATERIALS AND METHODS:                                RANK ONE

Biochemical Analysis:                                                 Rank Two

1. Enzyme Assay                                                         Rank three

POX activity                                                                 Rank four

PAL activity                                                                  Rank four

2. Tannin Determination                                             Rank three

Soluble tannin                                                               Rank four

Insoluble tannin                                                                       Rank four

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Scientific Facts in Manuscript Preparation



Metric system (International System of Units) should be used exclusively to express units. Make sure that abbreviations are used correctly. For example: l for liter, mgl-1 for milligram per liter, ml for milliliter, t for tone, µmolm-2s-l for light intensity, and % for relative humidity. Between units and numbers a space should be inserted.


Scientific Names:

Scientific names are to be included for all plant, animal and microorganism and are to be in italic font except for the abbreviations “var.”, “subsp.”, “f.”, etc. which indicate rank at infraspecific level (e.g., Cedrus libani subsp. atlantica, Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae). Author citation should only be used when helpful for historical or taxonomic reasons, and then it should only be used when the name is first mentioned in the body of the text. Do not use author citation in the abstract or title. Author names are to be abbreviated in accordance with the international standard provided by Brummitt, R.K., & Powell, C.E., “Authors of Plant Names”, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1992. An on-line version of this work may be consulted via

Common names (e.g., apple, pear, potato, rose, tomato) may be used for well-known plants and animals once the scientific name has been provided upon first use.

Cultivated varieties which are the product of selection and/or breeding are to be referred to as “cultivars” and not “varieties”. Cultivar names are to be written in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The part of a name which denotes the cultivar should be placed within single quotation marks. The abbreviation “cv.” is not to be used within a name (e.g., Malus ×domestica ‘Golden Delicious’, not Malus ×domestica cv. Golden Delicious).

If indicating hybrid status, × should be used before the name of the genus or the species epithet as appropriate (e.g., ×Cupressocyparis leylandii, Mentha ×piperita), or within the formula denoting the hybrid (e.g., Mentha aquatica × M. spicata). Neither the multiplication symbol nor the letter “x” are to be in italics. Use the letter “x” to indicate a cross such as “red x yellow” and for the term “by” in measurements (2 cm x 4 cm).

Use italic n and x when indicating sporophytic or basic chromosome number (e.g., 2n=4x = 48).


Enzyme Nomenclature:

Enzymes should be mentioned with their EC number at the first mention, according to the recommendations of the latest edition of Enzyme Nomenclature.


Chemical Nomenclature:

Use the current systematic IUPAC nomenclature for chemicals throughout the paper.


Chemical Structures:

Chemical structures should be prepared on a separate sheet as an illustrations, and number the individual formulae with Roman numerals (I, II). All bonds (single or double), charges (+ or -) and free radicals should be accurately positioned.

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Organization of a paper



Titles are printed in boldface in 14 point type. Use capital and lower case for the first word in the titles except for articles (“a” and “the”), prepositions (“of,” “in” “on.” “during,” “between”), and conjunctions (“and” and “but”), except when they are the first word. Gene symbols, which normally begin with lower case letters are not capitalized in titles nor is the first word of specific epithets in binomials. Do not include authorities for scientific names in titles. Keep titles as concise as possible. Don’t forget to Italic scientific names.



The byline under the title includes the name of author(s) (without titles) and affiliations. The given name of authors should be written out in full. The family name is always presented after the given name, even for those countries that use a different sequence (such as Spanish South American names which are alphabetized by the paternal family name).

The affiliation or address of author(s) is included in a separate line below the name. The address of the author should be in English. If there are two authors, separate the author name by “and,” e.g. W.D. Nell and A.D Hill; three authors would be W.D. Nell, A.D Hill and R.E. Reid. Do not use footnotes in the bylines for mentioning affiliation.



This is a Rank Two heading followed by colon (Keywords: apple, pear). List five to seven key words not used in the title. The second line of keywords is indented as hanging.



Use a Rank Two heading for Abstract. The abstract should be limited to 200-300 words in a single paragraph. Indent the first line of the abstract. The abstract should include a concise but comprehensive statement of the problem and results.



This should include a statement of the problem, a brief survey of previous work, and the scope and objective of the investigation (without summarizing the work itself). While avoiding a detailed literature, references to previous work should be included.


Materials and Methods (Methodology):

This section should be included in research and case study papers but usually is not required in review papers.

 Describe concisely the research (plant) materials, the growing technique, methods used, data analysis, and layout of treatment and experiments. Include the name and formula of all applied chemicals and compounds. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference and therefore only relevant modifications should be described.


Results and Discussion:

This is the heart of the paper therefore it should be clear and concise. Although this section(s) may either be presented as a single section or divided into separate Results and Discussion sections, we recommend authors not separate discussion from results. If separate, describe experimental results in the Results section and reserve interpretations, speculations, and conclusions for the Discussion section. Significance of the results should be discussed in the discussion section, therefore avoid repeating them. Also avoid extensive literature review and citation in this section.



Questions formulated in the introduction should be answered at the end of the paper and a conclusion with a summary of results and an assessment of future research or prospects should be made. Conclusion may stand alone or be a subsection of result and discussion or discussion.



In order to keep publication ethics, authors should mention and appreciate source of funding and name of project in this section. Other kind of support such as help from colleagues or professional associates in laboratory procedures and analysis could be mentioned in this part, but avoid acknowledgement of routine secretarial help or family members.


Citations in text:

Citations to references in the text are listed chronologically surrounded by parentheses with the following format: (Knee, 2000; Ketsa and Narkuba, 2001; Lu et al., 2010). If there are two authors with the same name that have published in the same year, initials may be used to avoid confusion (A. Jowkar, 2013; M.M. Jowkar, 2013). Note: “et al.” is used for three or more authors (Janick et al., 2012). Citations to personal communications should be used rarely and include the surname or initials of the person and are only to be included within the text, not in the Literature Cited section (A.B. Peters, pers. commun., 2001).


Literature Cited:

Literature Cited should be considered as a Rank 2 heading. References should appear at the end of paper as ‘Literature cited’ and should only include references used in the paper. References should be listed by the authors in alphabetical order, letter by letter, and in chronological order for publications of the same author(s) (first alphabetical order should be considered).

Generally cited references will include: name(s) of author(s), publication year, title of the publication, journal name or publisher name and address, and used pages.

Name of authors should begin with the sure name of the first author followed by his/her initials, initials of the second author and surname of the second author and will continue (as seen bellow).

Reference pages can be presented in three forms: a) 316 p. (when all 316 pages have been used); b) p. 316 (when only page number 316 is used); c) pp: 316-320 (when pages 316 through 320 have been used).

Do not use a comma before “and” after the penultimate author.

Do not use an issue number if the journal uses successive numbers for each volume.

In the format that follows, note that in all cases the given name or initials follow the family name.



Journal Paper:

(One author)

Jowkar, M.M. 2006. Water relations and microbial proliferation in vase solutions of Narcissus tazetta L. cv. ‘Shahla-e-Shiraz’ as affected by biocide compounds. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 81:656-660.

(Two authors)

Bleeksma, H.C. and W.G. van Doorn. 2003. Embolism in rose stems as a result of vascular occlusion by bacteria. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 29: 334-340.

(More than two authors)

Bolla, A., D. Voyiatzis, M. Koukourikou-Petridou and D. Chimonidou. 2010. Photosynthetic parameters and cut-flower yield of rose 'Eurored' are adversely affected by mild water stress irrespective of substrate composition. Scientia Horticulturae. 126: 390-394.



Taylor, P. 2000. Gardening with bulbs. Harper Collins Publisher, London, UK, 256 p.

Schaad, N.W., J.B. Jones and W. Chen. 2001. Laboratory guide for identification of plant pathogenetic bacteria. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, 373 p.


Chapter in Book:

Chen, J. and R.J. Henny. 2008. Role of Micropropagation in the development of the foliage plant industry. In Vol. 5: Floriculture, Ornamentals and Plant Biotechnology: Advances and Topical Issues. Teixeira da Silva, J.A. (Ed.). Global Science Books, Isleworth, UK, pp: 206-218.


Chapter in Conference Proceedings:

Carrillo M.P., M.S. Hernandez, J.A. Barrera and J.P. Fernandez-Trujillo. 2007. Ethylene behavior in araza fruit during ripening and storage at different temperatures. In: Advances in Plant Ethylene Research. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on the Plant Hormone Ethylene. Ramina, A., C. Chang, J. Giovannoni, H. Klee, P. Perata and E. Woltering (Eds.). Kluwer Academia Publication Group, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp: 215-217.



Food and Agricultural Organization. 2002.



(When more than one publication is used from a same author)

van Doorn, W.G. 1997. Water relations of cut flowers, p.1-85. In: J. Janick (ed.), Horticultural Reviews, Vol. 18, John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York, USA.

van Doorn, W.G. 1998. Effects of Daffodil flowers on the water relations and vase life of Roses and Tulips. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 123: 146-149.

van Doorn, W.G. and P. Cruz. 2000. Evidence for a wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 19: 73-78.

van Doorn, W.G. and R.R.J. Perik. 1990. Hydroxyquinoline citrate and low pH prevent vascular blockage in stems of cut rose flowers by reducing number of bacteria. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 115: 979-981.

van Doorn, W.G., Y. de Witte and H. Harkema. 1995. Effect of high numbers of exogenous bacteria on the water relations and longevity of cut carnation flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 6: 111-119.

van Doorn, W.G., Y. de Witte and R.R.J. Perik. 1990. Effect of antimicrobial compounds on the number of bacteria in stems of cut rose flowers. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 68: 117-122.



Tables should be included at the end of the article with the word Tables as prefix of table section. Captions are numbered consecutively and provided directly above each table with center alignment. Don’t forget to give the source at the end of the caption if the table is not produced from your original work. All column headings should be in the center of their column. The size of the table should not exceed the standard page size as mentioned in the page setup section. It is preferred that tables are placed portrait, but if necessary they can be placed landscape. Authors should avoid using solid lines to indicate cells within the table. Solid lines should only be used in the heading and in the bottom of the table (Table Simple 1 as table style). The units of the data must be indicated in parentheses in the column heading. If table footnotes are needed, use superscript numbers in table and footnote.

Caption: The caption should be understandable without recourse to the paper itself. The caption has only the first word capitalized (except for proper names) and ends in a period. The caption may be more than a single sentence. The source of the table, if necessary to include, is indicated in the caption.

Footnotes: Footnotes are placed underneath the body of the table. Put each footnote on a separate line with a numerical order.



Figures should be included at the end of the article after tables with the word Figures as prefix of figure section. Captions are numbered consecutively and provided directly bellow each figure with center alignment. Don’t forget to give the source at the end of the caption if the figure is not produced from your original work. Figures should be submitted electronically in JPEG, PGN and TIF formats with at least 150 dpi resolutions and in original size. Make sure submitted figures are clear and sharp. Graphs, drawings, and gel scans should be all in black and white while photographs could be submitted in colour.

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